EARLY HELP

Our aim is to help pupils and families as early as possible when issues arise. Early help is an approach not necessarily an action. It includes prevention education as well as intervention where necessary or appropriate. In some cases immediate urgent action might be necessary if a child or young person is at risk of immediate harm.

 

 

Universal source of help for all families in Gloucestershire: Gloucestershire Family Information Service (FIS) Gloucestershire Family Information Service (FIS) advisors give impartial information on childcare, finances, parenting and education. FIS are a useful source of information for parents and professionals. They support families, children and young people aged 0-19 years of age (25 for young people with additional needs) and professionals working with these families. They can help link parents up with other organisations that might be able to help or provide the information themselves e.g. parents could ask them about holiday clubs for your children across Gloucestershire. Contact the FIS by emailing: familyinfo@gloucestershire.gov.uk Or telephone: (0800) 542 0202 or (01452) 427362. FIS also have a website which has a wealth of information to support many issues such as childcare and support for children with disabilities. www.glosfamilies.org
GSCB (Gloucestershire Safeguarding Children’s Board) website. http://www.gscb.org.uk Important information for parents and professionals across Gloucestershire in relation to keeping children safe and avenues of support including early help options. At North Nibley all staff are available in a pastoral capacity should parents have a concern about anything at all. Staff may not have the answer but will try to find out the answer or sign-post parents/other professionals in the right direction. Parents can either talk directly with the staff or telephone the Head. Staff are available within school hours (8:30 am – 4:15 pm on weekdays during term-time) and often near a phone until much later. Our office number is 01453 542600 (to contact all staff).
Our Curriculum – PSHCE, SRE and SMSC Our curriculum includes lessons in PSHCE (Personal Social Health& Citizenship Education), SRE (Sex and Relationships Education) and SMSC (Spiritual Moral Social and Cultural) Education.  This comprehensive curriculum covers many aspects of keeping young people safe, healthy, resilient and aware of the world around them so that they can make informed decisions. Where pupils have specific issues that need discussing or addressing we will make their wellbeing curriculum bespoke to them. Other specific topics helping pupils stay safe and covered within our curriculum include (age appropriate content):

Sex education: Children in Y5 and 6 have formal Sex education – discussing puberty, changes, personal hygiene. (Gloucestershire health living and learning team (GHLL) resource).

Gender, identity and tolerance: preventing homophobic and transphobic bullying; preventing bullying of pupils from different types of families (e.g. same sex parents); avoiding anti-gay derogatory language; Gender identity – there isn’t such thing as a typical girl or a typical boy. Understanding and acceptance of others different than us, including those with different religions.

Drugs: Alcohol, Smoking and illegal drugs.

Keeping Safe: E-safety (Facebook and internet); personal safety (out and about); How to respond to an emergency Emotional well-being: Where to go for help if you, your friend or family member is struggling with emotional well-being/mental health problems? What are the signs someone is struggling? What makes you feel good; How to look after you own emotional well-being; Personal strength and self esteem; Being happy!

Relationships: How to make and maintain friendship; family relationships; different types of families (SEAL)

Healthy Living: Taking responsibility for managing your own health; Importance of sleep; The main components of healthy living (diet, exercise and wellbeing);Focus on breakfast; Managing health and wellbeing when you are unwell (making sure you take your medicine when you should, have the right perspective, doing what you can do within the limitations of your health condition.

Bullying (including cyber-bullying)/child death/suicide prevention All Gloucestershire schools including North Nibley are committed to tackling bullying. We want to know immediately if there any issues with bullying at school so that it can be addressed. School can also offer bespoke lessons on anti-bullying for anyone who has suffered bullying to encourage behaviours that might avert it in the future (e.g. assertiveness) or to boost self-esteem. We have a series of teaching resources produced by the Gloucestershire healthy living and Learning Team (www.ghll.org.uk) to support this. In serious cases of bullying parents should contact the police; particularly if there are threats involved. In an emergency call 999. Other sources of help and advice are: www.gscb.org (Gloucestershire Safeguarding children’s board) http://www.bullying.co.uk . Gloucestershire Healthy Living and Learning team provide alerts and resources in relation to supporting young people being bullied. Education about bullying is an integral part of our PSHCE programme www.ghll.org.uk.
Children who run away (missing persons/missing children) PC Christina Pfister (Missing persons Coordinator Gloucestershire Police). Tel: 101 (Gloucestershire Police). GSCB Missing Children Protocol http://www.gscb.org.uk: Gloucestershire’s protocol on partnership working when children and young people run away and go missing from home or care.  ASTRA (Gloucestershire): The ASTRA (Alternative Solutions To Running Away) has the primary aim of reducing the incidence of persistent running away across Gloucestershire. The project provides support, advice and information to young people up to eighteen years old who have run away. This might be from a family home, foster home or from a residential unit. ASTRA provides support after the event to enable a young person to address the causes of running away. The ASTRA project offers young people help and the support required to find Alternative Solutions To Running Away. Freephone Telephone number: 0800-389-4992 EXCLUSIVELY for young people who have run away and have no money. All other callers are asked to use the ‘ordinary’ number ( tel: 01452 541599).  
CME (Children missing education) Anyone concerned that a child is missing education (CME) can make a referral to the Education Entitlement and Inclusion team (EEI) at Gloucestershire County Council. Tel: 01452 426960/427360. Children Missing Education (CME) refers to ‘any child of compulsory school age who is not registered at any formally approved education activity e.g. school, alternative provision, elective home education, and has been out of education provision for at least 4 weeks’. CME also includes those children who are missing (family whereabouts unknown), and are usually children who are registered on a school roll / alternative provision. This might be a child who is not at their last known address and either: has not taken up an allocated school place as expected, or has 10 or more days of continuous absence from school without explanation, or left school suddenly and the destination is unknown. It is the responsibility of the Education Entitlement and Inclusion team, on behalf of the Local Authority (LA), to: Collate information on all reported cases of CME of statutory school aged children in Gloucestershire maintained schools, academies, free schools, alternative provision academies and Alternative Provision Schools (APS). The EEI Team will also liaise with partner agencies and other LAs and schools across Britain to track pupils who may be missing education and ensure each child missing education is offered full time education within 2 weeks of the date the LA was informed.
Children or young people with multiple needs (vulnerable) or multiple needs (complex) requiring multi-agency input or assessment. Within Gloucestershire, Targeted Support Teams provide multiagency support for children and families. A phone call to discuss a possible referral is helpful before making written referral. We actively refer to when appropriate: Targeted support Teams (TST): Gloucester (tel:01452 328076), Stroud (tel: 01452 328130); Tewkesbury (tel: 01452 328 250), Cotswold (tel: 01452 328101), Forest of Dean (tel: 01452 328048) and Cheltenham (tel: 01452 328160). These teams are made up of the following professionals: CAF Coordinators; Community Lead Professional – disabled children and young people; Inclusion Co-ordinator; Community Social Worker; Family Support Workers. They all work together from one base so they can recognise and respond to local needs and act as a focal point for co-ordinating support for vulnerable children, young people and their families. Support provided includes: Support for school and community based lead professionals working with children and families through the CAF process; Collaboration with social care referrals that do not meet their thresholds, to co-ordinate support within the community; Work in partnership to support children with special educational needs in school; Advice and guidance from a social work perspective on a ‘discussion in principle basis’ ; Support children with disabilities and their families to access activities and meet specific needs; Advice and guidance to lead 18 professionals and the provision of high quality parenting and family support services to families. Youth Support Team (YST): The Youth Support Team provide a range of services for vulnerable young people aged between11 – 19 (and up to 25 for young people with special needs), including: – Youth offending – Looked after children – Care leaver’s support services (for those aged 16+) – Early intervention and prevention service for 11 – 19 year olds – Support for young people with learning difficulties and/or disabilities – Positive activities for young people with disabilities – Support with housing and homelessness – Help and support to tackle substance misuse problems and other health issues – Support into education, training and employment – Support for teenage parents – For General Enquiries: T: 01452 426900 E: info.glos@prospects.co.uk To make a referral: T: 01452 427923 E: fasttrackteam@prospects.co.uk
Child Sexual exploitation (CSE) The CSE screening tool can be located on the GSCB website: www.gscb.org.uk/article/113294/Gloucestershire-proceduresand- protocols. This should be completed if CSE suspected. Clear information about Warning signs, the screening tool and Gloucestershire’s multi-agency protocol for safeguarding children at risk of CSE are at www.gscb.org. Referrals should be made to Gloucestershire social care and the Gloucestershire Police. Gloucestershire Police CSE Team: The CSE team sits within the Public Protection Bureau 19 Single agency team (Police) DS Nigel Hatten, DC Tess Nawaz, DC Kim Toogood, PC Dawn Collings, PC Nicki Dannatt, PC Jenny Kadodia, PC Christina Pfister (Missing persons Coordinator) 01242 276846

All referrals to go to the Central Referral Unit 01242 247999

Further information: National Working Group (Network tackling Child Sexual Exploitation) www.nationalworkinggroup.org and PACE UK (Parents Against Child Sexual Exploitation) www.paceuk.info

Drug concerns www.infobuzz.co.uk/:Info Buzz provides individual targeted support around drugs & emotional health issues, development of personal & social skills, and information & support around substance misuse. Drugs education is covered in the school curriculum. The Life Education Bus can also be called upon to visit as part of this provision PSHE/SMSC) curriculum as a preventative measure.
Domestic violence The GSCB (Gloucestershire Safeguarding Children’s board) have published a Domestic Abuse pathway for educational settings which is on the GSCB website. If a child or young person is suspected of living at home with a domestically abusive parent or if a young person has domestic abuse in their own relationship then the usual procedures should be followed and a referral made to the children’s helpdesk (tel: 01452 426565). The response will vary according to the age of the young person so that the appropriate agencies are involved.

Gloucestershire Domestic Abuse Support Service (GDASS) www.gdass.org.uk

MARAC Gloucestershire Constabulary: Multi Agency Risk Assessment Conferences (MARACs) prioritise the safety of victims who have been risk assessed at high or very high risk of harm. The MARAC is an integral part of the Specialist Domestic Violence Court Programme, and information will be shared between the MARAC and the Courts, in high and very high risk cases, as part of the process of risk management.

E-safety E-safety is a key part of our on-going (PSHCE/SMSC/SRE) curriculum, but especially so in our Computing lessons.

PACE (Parents Against Child Exploitation) UK is a useful website to engage parents with e-safety issues. www.paceuk.info/ – All staff undertake regular e-safety training through the child protection company www.childprotectioncompany.com (from Jan 2016)

Family Support Worker  -– We are unable to support the cost of a family support worker. We have, however, permission to call upon expertise within our Local Secondary School (KLB) staff team. Staff there are available to support children and families on a needs basis and can sign post families to further services if further support is required.
Fabricated and induced illness (FII) http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Fabricated-or-induced-illness for information on behaviours and motivation behind FII. Any professionals suspecting FII must involve the Police, Social Services and follow the child protection procedures outlined in this policy.
Faith abuse www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-action-plan-totackle- child-abuse-linked-to-faith-or-belief for copy of DfE document ‘national action plan to tackle child abuse linked to faith or belief.’ Judith Knight; Diocese of Gloucester Head of Safeguarding/faith abuse contact: jknight@glosdioc.org.uk.

For other faith groups contact Jane Bee (GCC LADO).

Female genital mutilation (FGM) http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/female-genital-mutilation for NHS information and signs of FGM. Any suspicion of FGM should be referred to the Police and social care. – Paul Batchelor (Head) has completed the online home office training, ‘Female Genital Mutilation: Recognising and Preventing FGM’ – E-learning package- http://www.fgmelearning.co.uk/ for interested staff or professionals (free home office e-learning) Posters/leaflets on FGM shared with staff and pupils. (Jan 2016)
Forced marriage SPOC (Single Point of Contact) for Forced Marriage in Gloucestershire is Acting DI Jo Mercurio (Gloucestershire Constabulary, Public Protection Bureau). UK Forced Marriage Unit fmu@fco.gov.uk Telephone: 020 7008 0151 Call 999 (police) in an emergency. www.gov.uk/stop-forced-marriage for information on Forced Marriage. Visit Home Office website to undertake Forced Marriage e-learning package https://www.gov.uk/forcedmarriage.

The ‘Multi-Agency Practice Guidelines- Handling cases of Forced Marriage’ document contains more information and detail https://www.gov.uk/forcedmarriage.

All practitioners must be aware of this, that is they may only have one chance to speak to a potential victim and thus they may only have one chance to save a life. This means that all practitioners working within statutory agencies need to be aware of their responsibilities and obligations when they come across forced marriage cases. If the victim is allowed to walk out of the door without support being offered, that one chance might be wasted.

Prevention Freedom Charity- Aneeta Prem ‘But it’s not fair’ book. A book for teenagers looking at forced marriage from the point of view of school friends of the girl who went to India and didn’t come back. This book promotes discussion.

Gangs and youth violence Contact the Avenger Task Force/Inspector Neil Smith (Gloucestershire Police tel: 101). A task force set up to identify potential gang members as vulnerable individuals and potential victims and aims to help them. Prevention: wellbeing curriculum – self-esteem & identity, law & order and considering impact of violence on communities.
Gender-based violence/violence against women and girls (WAWG) www.gov.uk – home office policy document, ‘Ending violence against women and girls in the UK’ (June 2014). FGM (Female Genital Mutilation) is violence against women and girls.

Hope House SARC (Sexual Assault Referral Centre): 01452 754390

Gloucestershire Rape and Sexual Abuse Centre: 01452 526770

Home-school support All of our Early Help is offered in partnership with parents / carers.
Honour based violence (HBV) The police have made it a high priority to help communities fight back to tackle both honour based violence and hate crime. The ‘Honour Network Help line’: 0800 5 999 247 Inspector Fay Komarah is the Gloucestershire Police contact for honour based violence. 
Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) MAPPA are a set of arrangements to manage the risk posed by the most serious sexual and violent offenders (MAPPA-eligible offenders) under the provisions of sections 325 to 327B of the Criminal Justice Act 2003. They should be contacted without delay if there is any concern is reported about a serious sexual or violent offender. (Contact Bernie Kinsella – Chair of MAPPA – detective chief superintendent – Gloucestershire Constabulary – Tel: 101)
Mental health CYPS (Gloucestershire’s mental health services) CYPS (Gloucestershire children’s mental health services). Consultant psychiatrists. PSHCE / SMSC curriculum – emotional wellbeing, stress management
Mental health Concerns  * Please note that in Gloucestershire CYPS (children and young people’s services) replaced CAMHS (child and adolescent mental health services) • Referral to school nurses may be appropriate.

• Referral to CYPS (Gloucestershire’s mental health services) via your own GP.

• For children/young people/adults with existing mental health difficulties concerns should be discussed with the existing medical professionals (consultant psychiatrists). In an emergency call 999 or 111.

• CYPS* Practitioner advice line (for professionals to call) tel: 01452 894272.

Private fostering http://www.gloucestershire.gov.uk/privatefostering Gloucestershire County council website information on private fostering. Refer to Gloucestershire Children & Families Helpdesk on 01452 426565 or Gloucestershire Private Fostering Social Worker 01452 427874. A private fostering arrangement is essentially one that is made without the involvement of a local authority. Private fostering is defined in the Children Act 1989 and occurs when a child or young person under the age of 16 (under 18 if disabled) is cared for and provided with accommodation, for 28 days or more, by someone who is not their parent, guardian or a close relative. (Close relatives are defined as; step-parents, siblings, brothers or sisters of parents or grandparents).
Radicalisation Gloucestershire Constabulary: 101 and Jane Bee (LADO) Anti-Terrorist Hotline: 0800 789 321 See Appendix (below) for further information on radicalisation.

Prevention: North Nibley C of E Primary School teach traditional British values through the curriculum: democracy, rule of law, respect for others, liberty, tolerance of those with different faiths and beliefs and promotion of ‘Britishness’.

Sexting http://www.nspcc.org.uk/preventing-abuse/keeping-childrensafe/ sexting (NSPCC website).

Gloucestershire Police have a sexual exploitation team. Contact Sgt. Nigel Hatton.

Prevention: ‘So you got naked online’ (sexting information leaflet produced for pupils by south west grid for learning) included in the Wellbeing (PSHE/SMSC) curriculum. Also shared with parents. Pupils are informed that sexting is illegal but the police have stated that young people should be treated as victims in the first place and not usually face prosecution. The police’s priority is those who profit from sexual images of young people….not the victims.

Teenage relationship abuse Please see comment about the Domestic abuse pathway for educational settings above (in domestic violence section). www.gov.uk – home office ‘teachers guide to violence and abuse in teenage relationships.’

All violence or suspected violence should be reported the police and/or social care as appropriate. GDASS (Gloucestershire Domestic Abuse Support Service) can be referred to for support.

• Young person’s GDASS leaflet.

• Lead GHLL Teacher for advice and support with curriculum resources (tel: 01452 427208)

• Gloucestershire Take a Stand – www.glostakeastand.com

• Holly Gazzard Trust (local charity) – support worker. Prevention: Resources used in our curriculum with pupils (age-appropriate) are the ‘Teenage Relationship Abuse’ and ‘Give and Get’ (about consent) Curriculum resources – www.ghll.org.

Trafficking A serious crime which must be reported to Jane Bee (Gloucestershire LADO) and the Gloucestershire Police. Trafficking can include a young person being moved across the same street to a different address for the purpose of exploitation. It doesn’t have to include people, children or young people being moved great distances.

 

Appendix: Further information on current high-profile safeguarding issues

 

Forced Marriage (FM)

This is an entirely separate issue from arranged marriage. It is a human rights abuse and falls within the Crown Prosecution Service definition of domestic violence. Young men and women can be at risk in affected ethnic groups. Whistle-blowing may come from younger siblings. Other indicators may be detected by changes in adolescent behaviours. We should never attempt to intervene directly as a school or through a third party. Schools should involve the police straight away.

 

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) – signs of It is essential that staff are aware of FGM practices and the need to look for signs, symptoms and other indicators of FGM. FGM is sometimes known as ‘female genital cutting’ or ‘female circumcision.’ Communities tend to use local names referring to this practice, including ‘sunna’

What is FGM?

It involves procedures that intentionally alter/injure the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons.

4 types of procedure:

  • Type 1 Clitoridectomy – partial/total removal of clitoris
  • Type 2 Excision – partial/total removal of clitoris and labia minora
  • Type 3 Infibulation entrance to vagina is narrowed by repositioning the inner/outer labia
  • Type 4 all other procedures that may include: pricking, piercing, incising, cauterising and scraping the genital area.

Why is it carried out?

Belief that:

  • • FGM brings status/respect to the girl – social acceptance for marriage
  • • Preserves a girl’s virginity
  • • Part of being a woman / rite of passage
  • • Upholds family honour
  • • Cleanses and purifies the girl
  • • Gives a sense of belonging to the community
  • • Fulfils a religious requirement
  • • Perpetuates a custom/tradition
  • • Helps girls be clean / hygienic
  • • Is cosmetically desirable
  • • Mistakenly believed to make childbirth easier

Is FGM legal?

• FGM is internationally recognised as a violation of human rights of girls and women.

It is illegal in most countries including the UK.

Circumstances and occurrences that may point to FGM happening:

  • • Child talking about getting ready for a special ceremony
  • • Family taking a long trip abroad
  • • Child’s family being from one of the ‘at risk’ communities for FGM (Kenya, Somalia,
  • Sudan, Sierra Leon, Egypt, Nigeria, Eritrea as well as non-African communities
  • including Yemeni, Afghani, Kurdistan, Indonesia and Pakistan)
  • • Knowledge that the child’s sibling has undergone FGM
  • • Child talks about going abroad to be ‘cut’ or to prepare for marriage

A sign that may indicate a child has undergone FGM:

  • • Prolonged absence from school and other activities
  • • Behaviour change on return from a holiday abroad, such as being withdrawn and appearing subdued
  • • Bladder or menstrual problems
  • • Finding it difficult to sit still and looking uncomfortable
  • • Complaining about pain between the legs
  • • Mentioning something somebody did to them that they are not allowed to talk about
  • • Secretive behaviour, including isolating themselves from the group
  • • Reluctance to take part in physical activity
  • • Repeated urinal tract infection
  • • Disclosure

The ‘One Chance’ rule

As with Forced Marriage there is the ‘One Chance’ rule. It is essential that settings /schools/colleges take action without delay. Staff should activate local safeguarding procedures, using existing national and local protocols for multi-agency liaison with police and children’s social care.

 

Further information on Trafficking

Child trafficking is a form of child abuse where children are recruited and moved to be exploited, forced to work or sold. They are often subject to multiple forms of exploitation including: child sexual exploitation, benefit fraud, forced marriage, domestic servitude including cleaning, childcare and cooking, forced labour in agriculture or factories, criminal activity such as pickpocketing, begging, transporting drugs, working on cannabis farms, selling pirated DVDs , bag theft. Traffickers trick, force or persuade children to leave their homes and then move them to another location.

Trafficked children are often controlled with violence and threats and may be kept captive, resulting in long lasting and devastating effects on their mental and physical health. It is not easy to identify trafficked children, but you may notice unusual behaviour or events that just don’t add up.

Both boys and girls are victims of trafficking. Trafficked children may be from the UK or have been moved from another country. Poverty, war or discrimination can put children more at risk of trafficking. Traffickers may promise children education or respectable work, or persuade parents that their child can have a better future in another place. It can be very difficult to identify a child who has been trafficked, as they are deliberately hidden and isolated. They may be scared, or they may not realise that they are a victim or are being abused. While there may not be any obvious signs of distress or harm, a trafficked child is at risk and may experience physical abuse, emotional abuse and/or neglect. Many children are trafficked in to the UK from abroad, but children can also be trafficked from one part of the UK to another. Even a child being moved from one side of the street to a different address for a short period of time with the intent of exploitation would be identifiable as a trafficking crime. Any suspicion of trafficking must be reported to the LADO and the Police without delay.

 

Further information on Radicalisation (in line with the PREVENT DUTY)

Radicalisation refers to the process by which a person comes to support terrorism and forms of extremism leading to terrorism. To reduce the risk from terrorism we need not only to stop terrorist attacks but also to prevent people becoming terrorists. This is one objective of Prevent, part of CONTEST, the Government’s strategy for countering international terrorism. All the terrorist groups who pose a threat to us seek to radicalise and recruit people to their cause. The aim of Prevent is to stop people becoming or supporting terrorists, by challenging the spread of terrorist ideology, supporting vulnerable individuals, and working in key sectors and institutions.

Work to safeguard children and adults, providing early intervention to protect and divert people away from being drawn into terrorist activity, is at the heart of the Prevent strategy. Supporting vulnerable individuals requires clear frameworks – including guidance on how to identify vulnerability and assess risk, where to seek support and measures to ensure that we do not ever confuse prevention and early intervention with law enforcement.

Channel is a key element of the Prevent strategy. It is a multi-agency approach to protect people at risk from radicalisation. Channel uses existing collaboration between local authorities, statutory partners (such as the education and health sectors, social services, children’s and youth services and offender management services), the police and the local community to identify individuals at risk of being drawn into terrorism; assess the nature and extent of that risk; and develop the most appropriate support plan for the individuals concerned. Channel is about safeguarding children and adults from being drawn into committing terrorist-related activity. It is about early intervention to protect and divert people away from the risk they face before illegality occurs.

Indicators of vulnerability to radicalisation:

  1. Radicalisation refers to the process by which a person comes to support terrorism and forms of extremism leading to terrorism.
  2. Extremism is defined by the Government in the Prevent Strategy as: Vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs. We also include in our definition of extremism calls for the death of members of our armed forces, whether in this country or overseas.
  3. Extremism is defined by the Crown Prosecution Service as: The demonstration of unacceptable behaviour by using any means or medium to express views which: • Encourage, justify or glorify terrorist violence in furtherance of particular beliefs; • Seek to provoke others to terrorist acts;• Encourage other serious criminal activity or seek to provoke others to serious criminal acts; or• Foster hatred which might lead to inter_community violence in the UK.
  1. There is no such thing as a “typical extremist”: those who become involved in extremist actions come from a range of backgrounds and experiences, and most individuals, even those who hold radical views, do not become involved in violent extremist activity.
  2. Pupils may become susceptible to radicalisation through a range of social, personal and environmental factors – it is known that violent extremists exploit vulnerabilities in individuals to drive a wedge between them and their families and communities. It is vital that school staff are able to recognise those vulnerabilities.
  3. Indicators of vulnerability include:
    • Identity Crisis – the student / pupil is distanced from their cultural / religious heritage and experiences discomfort about their place in society;
    • Personal Crisis – the student / pupil may be experiencing family tensions; a sense of isolation; and low self-esteem; they may have dissociated from their existing friendship group and become involved with a new and different group of friends; they may be searching for answers to questions about identity, faith and belonging;
    • Personal Circumstances – migration; local community tensions; and events affecting the student / pupil’s country or region of origin may contribute to a sense of grievance that is triggered by personal experience of racism or discrimination or aspects of Government policy;
    • Unmet Aspirations – the student / pupil may have perceptions of injustice; a feeling of failure; rejection of civic life;
    • Experiences of Criminality – which may include involvement with criminal groups, imprisonment, and poor resettlement / reintegration;
    • Special Educational Need – students / pupils may experience difficulties with social interaction, empathy with others, understanding the consequences of their actions and awareness of the motivations of others.
  4. However, this list is not exhaustive, nor does it mean that all young people experiencing the above are at risk of radicalisation for the purposes of violent extremism.
  5. More critical risk factors could include:
    • Being in contact with extremist recruiters;
    • Accessing violent extremist websites, especially those with a social networking element;
    • Possessing or accessing violent extremist literature;
    • Using extremist narratives and a global ideology to explain personal disadvantage;
    • Justifying the use of violence to solve societal issues;
    • Joining or seeking to join extremist organisations; and
    • Significant changes to appearance and / or behaviour;
    • Experiencing a high level of social isolation resulting in issues of identity crisis and / or personal crisis.